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Chemistry Midterm Review (non math questions)
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Gravity
I'm not sure about the boiling point question.
Terms in this set (29)
Matter is the umbrella term given to everything that has ________ and __________.
mass and volume
Chemistry studies the properties and changes of _______________.
matter
What is the difference between a pure substance and a mixture?
pure substance - composition is the same throughout (doesn't vary between samples)
mixture - composition that DOES vary between samples
What is the difference between extensive and intensive properties?
extensive - depend on the amount of matter present
intensive - don't depend on the amount of matter present
Give an example of an extensive and an intensive property.
extensive - volume
intensive - melting point
What is the difference between physical and chemical changes?
physical change - does not change the identity of the matter
chemical change - changes the identity of matter
Give an example of a physical change and a chemical change.
physical - cutting
chemical - iron+oxygen=rust
What are two things that we've discussed this semester that can alter boiling points? How do they alter them?
altitude and atmospheric pressure. (lower altitude-higher atmospheric pressure) As atmospheric pressure decreases, boiling points decrease
What does volume represent?
the amount of (3d) space occupied by an object
What units can volume be measured in? What is the special volume conversion between these units?
volume can be measured in cubic meters (m3) or liters. 1L=1000cm3
1000cm3=1000mL
What is the formula for density? What units will density be in?
Density=mass/volume
Density units: Kg/m3, g/cm3, g/mL
What are the rules for significance for nonzero numbers?
all nonzero numbers are significant
What are the rules for significance for zero numbers?
-zeros between nonzero digits are significant -zeros in front of nonzero digits are not significant -zeros after a decimal point (and after nonzero units) are significant - zeros at the end of a number are only significant if a decimal is placed behind them
Rounding rules: greater than 5
round up by 1
Rounding rules: less than 5
kept the same
Rounding rules: 5
rounded up by 1 if odd, kept the same if even
What are rules for significant figures in addition/subtraction operations? (decimals/whole numbers)
1. Decimals: match the least decimal places 2. Whole numbers: match the fewest sig figs
What is the rule for sig figs in multiplication/division operations and in scientific notation calculations?
Match the fewest sig figs (same as whole numbers)
What is the Law of Conservation of Mass?
mass is never created or destroyed (during normal chemical reactions or physical changes)
What were the 5 principles of John Dalton's atomic theory?
1) All matter is composed of atoms 2) Atoms of a given element are identical in size, mass, and other properties 3) Atoms cannot be subdivided, created, or destroyed 4) Atoms of different elements combine in simple whole number ratios to form compounds 5) In chemical reactions, atoms are combined, separated, or rearranged
Which 2 of John Dalton's atomic theory principles have since been disproved?
2 and 3 (2. atoms are identical in size, mass, and other properties 3.atoms cannot be subdivided, created, or destroyed)
Unit Abbreviations/units: Moles
mol
Unit Abbreviations/units: Molar mass
grams (g)
Unit Abbreviations/units: Molarity
M (M= mol/L)
Unit Abbreviations/units: Volume (of solutions)
mL/L
Unit Abbreviations/units: Avogadro's number
atoms
How many atoms are in 1 mole of any substance? (Avogadro's number)
6.022 x 10^23 atoms
What two units/calculations have we used to quantitatively describe concentration this semester?
Molarity and Mass %
(M=mol/L
mass %= mass of solute/mass of solution x 100)
What is the formula to solve for molarity?
moles (mol)/liters (L)
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